Industry 4.0 caused a heat wave in the world, but not a country like Germany, set up a special agency to dig deep plowing fine. The entire industrial system, will be built around industry 4.0. So abstract a concept, it just was German one stroke portrayed. German industrial thinking, visible, but may not work on. German industrial pyramid Command 4.0 4.0 establishment of industrial platform , is the central hub of the “industrial digital” digital ecosystem, more than 350 stakeholders from more than 150 organizations involved work platform. And it is the core of the working groups, coordinated by experts in various fields to support small and medium enterprises, as well as organize international cooperation, which will bring together a variety of expertise. It uses a flat decision-making mechanisms: from the top platform of industrial 4.0 , to the middle Standardization Committee (Standardization Council Industrie4.0, SCI4.0) and laboratories for the enterprise network (Lab networks Industrie4.0, LNI4.0). This is a top-down, ternary management structure from bottom to top.
Figure 1: Pyramid decision-making mechanism
However, the structure at the outset, the industrial platform 4.0 is a “messy” the.
Figure 2: Structure early industrial platform 4.0 (2016) (Source: German industrial transcript 4.0)
Comparative 4.0 2016 Industrial platform , both know in the organizational structure industry 4.0 platform has been refined evolution. 4.0 There are currently six industrial working groups, including the Working Group WG1, mainly reference architectures, standards and norms, the President from ABB; Working Group II is the technology and application scenarios, from the President of Phoenix; Working Group III is interconnected security of the system, from the Chairman of Robert Bosch GmbH; working group IV is the legal framework, the President from ThyssenKrupp; working group V is employment, education and training, from the President of the German metal industry association; industrial working group VI 4.0 digital business model, from the Chairman of the consulting firm Accenture. 2016In April, we set up in Berlin, Germany 4.0 Industry Committee for Standardization (SCI4.0), the goal is to coordinate the ISO. SCI is responsible for these dense with international organizations, and carry out benchmarking connection, and ultimately build their own German industrial standard architecture and technology roadmaps 4.0. The group greatest feature is cross-cutting, it is a good combination of mechanical, electrical and IT field, therefore, been widely welcomed.
Figure 3: Standard Central Health of Industry 4.0
and treatment of different national strategies, SCI methodically Chinese intelligent manufacturing with American industry Web Consortium IIC, Japan IVI associations, France, Italy, Australia, have established a cooperation mechanism. The bottom is 4.0 Industrial Laboratory Network (LNI4.0), responsible for the concrete implementation of standard tests, experiments and feedback. This is a business-oriented, application-oriented organization landing. Consensus it maximizes the German industry can reach all 4.0, with practice and landing mode, passed to German SMEs.
Figure 4: three yuan governance cycle
With this division three, industrial 4.0 can be at various levels, easy docking. Both promote linkages German companies, but also greatly promote international exchanges. Currently 4.0 German industry has with China, the United States IIC, Japan’s industrial value chain IVI, Australia, France and Italy, have established bilateral relations butt. China and Germany in May 2015 established the German Intelligent Manufacturing / Industrial 4.0 Standardization Working Group. Currently in the reference model of mutual recognition, information security and functional safety, industrial network edge computing, case, predictive maintenance, artificial intelligence applications, and industrial 4.0 Components / Management Shell / twin digital exchanges and other cooperation. We can say that Germany precisely built a top-level governance structure for the industry 4.0. As with precision German tanks. Expand the Industrial Internet: value-based service VBS (Value-based scenario) in an industrial context of 4.0, people gradually realized that to achieve digital manufacturing, in addition to technology-driven bottom-up approach, must also pass top-down-driven approach. Driving the latter from business scenarios and business models, which have shown a lot of technology application examples. And these examples, the same access to new products, solutions and services, as well as a standardized basis.How to describe the interaction with the participants in the form of a technical system in an example of the technical level. Consideration has been set by the specific application scenario 4.0 industrial platform. German Industry 4.0 platform presents a new idea: Value-Based Services (Value-based scenario, VBS), which is based on scenarios into account in the value of the digital services industry. In the case of the product is considered a machine equipment, only two traditional roles: equipment suppliers and equipment owners.
Figure 5: Value-Based Service Application scenario VBS
However widely used Internet industry, making this the most traditional scenarios, is introducing two additional roles: the service platform operator and provider of data-driven services. So in the future, who will complete these additional business roles? Machine supplier, or a machine owner. The problem with the introduction of digital technology, many third party has arrived. This is also the platform for the Internet industry’s most perplexing thing: the role of each supplier, are vague and are crossed. German industry believes 4.0 platform, based on advance application scenarios VBS is an important cornerstone of the deepening industry 4.0. Germany asked what is a digital business model What is a digital business model? The question you need answered? The Germans do not think so. German Industry 4.0 contribution to value creation, is focused on two points: one is the mechanism of action, the architecture is a digital business model. Government, scientists, business associations and social partners in the discussions around the German industry can bring added value Control Engineering Copyright , as well as how to improve Germany’s competitiveness and quality of life issues. German industrial group 4.0 platform, specifically an increase of six digital business model working groups to address the needs of these issues, and through a structured discussion between the different stakeholders, to take action to power.
Figure 6: innovative digital business models driving force in April 2018
German Industry 4.0 platform found two foundation. It is the definition of a business model based on Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010), that is, the business model is to describe how organizations create, deliver and capture the value of the basic principles. This typically includes value proposition, value creation structure, partner network. secondOne is the opinion of Jaekel (2015), the value creation in the architecture of digital business model is characterized by a focus on data and analysis, and through its partner network platform will be organized as a scalable ecosystem. This value proposition (goods and services) and transformation profit model (cost structure and revenue) are closely related. So one of the tasks in the work of the sixth, is the study of how this definition applies to product manufacturing. What a novel task. Relative to domestic manufacturing, the most frequently talk about is the “new manufacturing” and “new model.” However, no one knows what the connotation behind actually is. The German first thought is to first determine the conceptual basis, to obtain “consensus starting point.” German provides some answers, one thing is worth noting: “By increasing share of software products – often combined with the use of the platform, will enhance greater scalability.”
Figure 7: experience becomes one of the cornerstones
working group strongly advise German manufacturer, we must take the focus expanded from “products and production” to “operational mechanism-based data services,” that is “smart products and services + + intelligent new experience.” Intelligent service is based on the new value of the data generated, for example, will not unmanned vehicle accidents.
Figure 8: A new concept digital business models
the cornerstone of the business model to promote digital transformation, intelligent products, platforms, and digital ecosystems twins. And behind all this is to achieve a more powerful connectivity through the underlying technology, faster speed and smaller size. Quality of the data ( “raw”), operating system and governance structure determines the key difference. In order to provide the best possible operating environment requires the right regulatory and people-oriented key drivers.
Figure 9: Germany Industry 4.0 Progress
Management Shell: Everything coat with industry in order to achieve the 4.0 components are integrated into the information assets of the world came into being. Here’s assets, including all of the content industry to achieve 4.0 solutions need to “connect”, for example, the machine and its components; file exchange drawings, wiring diagrams;; supply of materials, parts and products such as contracts and orders. And these industries 4.0 components, a most valuable way to express digital transformation, is the German Industry 4.0 platform proposed management shell. Various forms of digital assets of the enterprise, through asset management shell (Asset Administration Shell, AAS) is expressed. 4.0 industrial components, to integrate the management of digital shell. It can be integrated into the communications industry assets 4.0; provide controlled access to all information assets; standardized and secure communication interface; support in the absence of communication interface, the use of bar codes or two-dimensional code to integrate “passive” assets ; and is addressable in the network can be clearly identified asset. We can say that management shell is “the expression of an Internet” Industry 4.0 components.
Figure 10: compliance with IEC PAS 63088 standard case management
From the beginning of 2015, Germany has been around the management shell, do all kinds of model descriptions and criteria covering. These intertwined model, plus practice from businesses, products are being made in Germany to advance to the Cyber (Cyber) space to go. Germany’s most thought-wing machine, will soon become a digital machine with twins. Digital Readiness German machine, seen the rise.
Figure 11: Germany Management Shell
on the November 2018 exhibition in Nuremberg, Germany, Germany announced the latest progress in the management shell.
FIG. 12: the shell application management platform things
Management shell may cover the entire life cycle of production and manufacturing systems and services. Below the engine an example, the content management contained in the shell. In the first project phase, Shell will consider management functions. For example, the engine shaft torque and higher performance will be placed into the management shell. Next, select a particular type (type) of the engine manufacturer, for more information on such engines will be added to the management shell. Next, engine manufacturers to provide a component for calculation and simulation of the engine, thus the selection step on simulated and confirmed. During the commissioning phase, the engine will be ordered, engine type (type) with the physical changes to the engine serial number (instance), the serial number is unique to this engine data. In this way, management shell further enriched. In the operating phase of the engine, the measured temperature, vibration or the like operating parameters are also recorded in the management shell. Data on engine maintenance will be recorded in the management shell. After the termination of the life of the engine, the new engine will be replaced. After the replacement, a new type of engine (type) & Kind (instance) of all of the information will be recorded in the management shell. Suppliers, engineering partners, system integrators, operators and service partners and all partners in the value chain can exchange information management shell. Currently 4.0 platform industrial published the results of case management include: case management framework, the relationship between industry 4.0 components, as the case management initiative based communications industry 4.0, and security management shell and so on.
Figure 13: Embodiment Thinking managed housing
It can be said, the German management shell, the top layer is 4.0 industrial architecture RAMI4.0 as “needle”, various technical standards as a “line”, dense Germany sewing machine a soft hedgehog armor. The RAMI4.0 and management shell, are from Working Group I: reference architectures, standards and norms in charge of research and development.
Figure 14: Industry Partner Management Shell numerous
This is the German machine new jersey future Control Engineering Copyright , perhaps reminiscent of Mech Warrior. If we consider the German industrial group 4.0 platform, spare no effort to carry out docking with other countries. Germany These management shell, will soon become an international management shell machine-made, then the digital space, digital gene twins will be determined by the management shell. They are labeled “Made in Germany.” This is also the German industry all digital twin headquarters. Artificial intelligence development of artificial intelligence is a field of Germany’s most frustrating is the focus of Industry 4.0 platform. Germany’s leading artificial intelligence research institutions including the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), the Fraunhofer Institute, the Max Planck Society, the Leibniz Association, and numerous colleges and universities. September 2017 CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright , the Federal Ministry of Education launched a platform for artificial intelligence called “learning system PLS” (Plattform Learning Systems), which is following the “Industry 4.0” platform, Germany the government launched the second digital theme into R & D platform. The program is through the development and application of “learning system” so that future work and production more flexible and save resources, improve work efficiency and quality of life and sustainable development in the field of economy, transport and energy supply. November 15, 2018, GermanyFederal government officially released “Artificial Intelligence (Künstliche Intelligenz) strategy”, the slogan is “AI Made in Germany”, which will enhance the importance of artificial intelligence to the height of the country. Germany AI strategy, established the twelve areas of action, emphasizing aspects of scientific research, contests, etc. to promote small and medium enterprises. Scientific research, for example, the German federal government is to create a broad, interdisciplinary, internationally competitive artificial intelligence ecosystem. By providing a good foundation for excellent research were to expect the best intelligence in artificial intelligence, and “driven” innovation. AI strategy also identified fourteen goals , the most impressive is that German artificial intelligence strategic expectations “artificial intelligence (AI) made in Germany” has become a globally recognized quality mark. German Federal Government issued the “artificial intelligence strategy” aimed at expanding Germany’s strong position in the industrial areas of 4.0, and become a leader in the field of industrial applications of AI. Therefore, the industry has Artificial Intelligence 4.0 platform into their work plans. The main platform for new digital business models, analysis of the legal framework of artificial intelligence background, and emphasizes the role of AI in enhancing skills. In order to create synergies, Industry 4.0 platform and learning platform PLS cooperation activities. Through a comprehensive study of the field of AI, AI’s specific recommendations for industrial applications, especially for small and medium enterprises use cases and scenarios. Currently, the industry is studying the case AI 4.0 platform for industrial applications, including order-controlled production, adaptation factory, adaptive self-organizing logistics, value-based service, transparency and adaptability of product delivery, production people from machine interaction technology, intelligent production of smart product development, innovation and product development, seamless and dynamic plant engineering.
Figure 15: Pan AI in industrial applications (source: Christoph Legat, SCI4.0, 2018.11)
in the German Industry 4.0 digital business model working group is warning the German manufacturer, only there is not enough Know-how It must be applied to the data taken into account, which is becoming a key factor in the future of manufacturing a winner. The artificial intelligence is a key driving force. This is Made in Germany with German technology and proud, isA stern reminder. The “artificial intelligence made in Germany” to Industry 4.0, it will be a serious topic with a revival mission. Industry 4.0 is a small stone many people chasing Industry 4.0, revolve around technology and ideas. But in fact, the German Industry 4.0 platform to conduct a comprehensive exploration industry 4.0 fields every stone, it has been carefully turned over. Digital industry needed labor force is an important direction, industry 4.0 platform in 2017 launched a special talent guidelines, many companies have also launched a training manual Industry 4.0 talents. Security, but also the German Industry 4.0 never gave up the topic. As early as in 2016 issued the “Industry 4.0 Safety Guide”, gives some simple basic principles on security. Such as reducing member, and reliable design module components; detection mechanisms need to be designed early warning and control; construction, need to design the system to restore attack. Cyber security is the focus. In addition, data sovereignty is the key concern of many businesses. In order to provide the ideal data security framework, funded under the Federal Department of Research of Germany, in January 2016, the Fraunhofer start “industrial data space IDS” program. This is a big data for industrial flagship project, jointly undertaken by the R & D tasks twelve Association’s Research Institute, aims to unite the parties to solve R & D Industry 4.0 data sharing on important problems, such as, in Munich Fu Laoen Hof application integration information security Institute (AISEC) is responsible for providing trusted industry 4.0 cross-cutting data sharing and information security. At the same time, also created a non-profit organization – Space Industry Association data, there are 42 initial members, including ThyssenKrupp, Bosch, Schaeffler, Volkswagen. Each member of the need to implement a business-driven user case. 2017 German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) approved the financing of 5 million euros, and further funding of the second phase of the “data space” program, the purpose of this application is to seek an international framework. Either step in Germany, will never forget docking with the international standard. Similarly, in order to solve complex legal issues in the field of industrial 4.0, the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy in April 2017 launched the first version of the legal framework of industrial 4.0 “Ju-RAMI 4.0”. “Ju” is the beginning of the German letter “law” word. Industry 4.0, there is actually a law keel. This idea, it is more than the industry’s imagination. Summary In Germany, industrial 4.0 do not need to be an inspiring slogan, it is becoming a monotonous professional action. All professional action, whether it is golf or billiards, for most people are curious, exciting, and for well-trained professional athletes, this is a quiet and tedious grinding. Class industrial progress, in fact, is a kind of quiet accumulation, rather than flush movement. Industry 4.0 is being strict German, constructed in accordance with a sophisticated machine the way. This machine, day after day, year after year in a slow growth. One day, the whole world of industry, will once again be surprised by such an industrial tank. Most surprising is that it is all under the watchful eye of growth. However, it is long out of the way, but with everyone’s imagination and imitation, are not the same.