Chinese management under big change: from the Anglo-American as a teacher, turned to the German and Japanese counterparts

Why do I tell this by the theme? I never did a simple study from literature to literature, I ask myself every study must be rooted in their own life experience. Soon after graduating from college in 1993, I have worked for two years at SONY Corporation. In 1996 CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright , when I resigned, Japanese managers tried to retain me and asked me to eat Korean barbecue at Landmark Sarah Burr restaurant. During the evening, he said to me sincerely, “Zhao Xiangyang, I think you’re like a Japanese.” In 2002 to 2005, I spent less than three years, to get the doctor in Germany. My tutor Professor Michael Frese and German colleagues often jokingly called me “German Zhao”. So , more or less, I have these two countries have some specific perceptual awareness of their culture and values ​​more agreeable. We learned from British and American experiences and lessons learned, as well as the need for new China was founded seven decades of historical transition, so far can be simply divided into two stages. From 1949 to 1978, we have the Soviet Union as a teacher, the full implementation of the planned economy, state-owned enterprises dominate the world, laid the basic industrial base, however, people’s living standard is low; from 1979 to 2018, with Anglo-American as a teacher, a comprehensive learning and the establishment of market economy, the “Science and technology are primary productive forces”, in the introduction of digestion and absorption of foreign advanced technology on all, China has established the world’s most comprehensive on-site industrial system, has become a “world factory.” In the process, we also learned to innovation, and establish the respect and protection of intellectual property. However, over the past two decades, especially after 2008, four trillion plan to stimulate the economy after the introduction of China also gradually embarked on a similar path with the United States, off into the virtual real economy, rely mainly on real estate, finance, development of the Internet and the service industry. In the manufacturing sector to make quick money, earn easy money, all the money under pressure to look increasingly become very hard to force the industry. In recent years, China’s revisit revitalize the manufacturing sector, very timely and wise, not too late. In the United States there have been two decades of industry dating phenomenon (refer to Cao Dewang CCTV “Dialogue” program September 15), a large area in China has not yet appeared.Anglo-American model What are the biggest drawbacks is it? Is the “Government – Business – Society” very unbalanced society between rich and poor is too serious. In particular, the United States of big technology companies and large financial companies use technology alliances and money, almost entirely kidnapped the development of society. They vain 60% of the interests of Gu bottom of the pyramid, the outsourcing of manufacturing to the lowest global cost locations (which of course is a great boon for developing countries), resulting in a hollowing out of domestic manufacturing, so that the middle class income stagnation , the underlying unemployment rate soared, the white suicide rate soared to a high level, social groups and public opinion tear, resulting in a similar Trump such a person came to power, which is the background of the Sino-US trade war. Mintzberg believes that “in 1989, when the communist regimes of Eastern Europe began to collapse, the Western political commentators began to proclaim: ‘! Capitalism has victory’ They are wrong, wrong, relatively speaking, in fact, ‘balance’ victory in 1989 when Eastern European countries too concentrated power in the public sector, and serious deviation from equilibrium, when some Western countries are successful enough to maintain a balance between public and private community section. but now these countries are also unrestricted slid into the non-equilibrium ( “social rebalancing”, Mintzberg, Oriental Press, 2015). “In particular the United States, after 1989, the company became a market economy of the world. Not only macro “public – business – social field” big triangle tilted, and the core interests of micro business stakeholders in the small triangular relationship between the “shareholders – – Customer employees” also there was a serious imbalance. Since 1997, the US company to Friedman’s “interests of shareholders first” golden rule, causing serious opposition and tear between shareholders and managers with employees and trade unions. After the Sino-US trade war began, the Western business community began a collective reflection and awakening. The most typical benchmark is August 19, 2019, by the 181 CEO or responsible person in the United States to participate in the Roundtable BRT issued a new statement, and historically the company’s aim redefined as “as providing customers with value; investment in employees; create long-term value for shareholders; to serve all Americans. ” However, interests tied and path dependence is bound to make rebalancing the road difficult, long way to go. In this context, we see more and more clearly understood, because the political system, national culture, developmentThe great differences between stages of development path, etc., Anglo-American model increasingly inappropriate as Chinese learning “good example.” And with a strong manufacturing base, more balanced social development of Germany and Japan is China’s fellow travelers. Over the next three decades, we should be firmly turned to the German and Japanese counterparts, the early realization of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, become a par with the US powers. Why should we turn to the German and Japanese counterparts? I need to prove logically that. Simply put, because there are more similarities between China and Germany and Japan, this similarity makes it easier to learn to be successful (specific similarity, please refer to the detailed discussion below). Why are there similarities we can guarantee the successful change from a high probability, rather than similarity can not it? Cross-cultural management knows that culture is like a normal distribution, a mainstream cultural values, social organization or distributed within one standard deviation of the normal distribution. When introducing a new culture heterogeneity, hoping to trigger some kind of social change or organizational change, when, if a new culture and traditional culture in a way that matched, that is, fall within the normal range of body when, in general, will guarantee a smooth change, the effect will be better. And when a new culture and traditional culture does not match, and there may be two cases. The first case is a serious conflict, change and even retrogression in trouble (left normal distribution); the second case, a change began to produce a more serious conflict, however, gradually absorbed the advantages of both, it is quickly forming a composite of a new culture, the last successful change, resulting in unusually good results (to the right of the normal distribution). Wholesale plagiarism Anglo-American model, impossible in China, Germany and Japan while drawing mode, there is a lot of space. Germany and Japan by drawing mode, take the socialist road of development with Chinese characteristics, I think it would be unable to go around a historical stage. There are many striking historical similarities between the two countries, Germany and Japan, Germany and the history of Japan similarity. Compared Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, Germany and Japan are developing country, like China is developing country. In 1871, the end of the Franco-Prussian War, the reunification of Germany, the German Empire was born in Versailles, France. Prior to this, today, on this land of God Holy Roman German Empire, a confederation of more than 300, a mess. The poet Goethe once asked bitterly, “Germany, where are you?.” Because Germany is located in Central Europe corridor,So , this land is often the British Empire, Tsar of Russia, the French Empire and the Austro-Hungarian empire at war’s place. German desire for reunification, Germany has been the most significant in the history of 18th and 19th century theme. In 1853, US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry generals, led by four black ships arrived in Yokohama, Japan, to the Japanese onslaught gunboat founding trade, signed the “Japan-US Treaty of goodwill”, known as “black ships event.” Ten years later, the end of the closed-door policy of the shogunate. 1868 Meiji Restoration began Control Engineering Copyright , Japan embarked on the road of reform and revolution. It is particularly worth mentioning is that in 1871, Japan sent a very high standard of Iwakura diplomatic corps, government officials traveled the more than one hundred nations in the world a year to study the rise of the road to Western developed countries, Japan is looking for wealthy strong medicine. When they came just united Germany, found that German business is very prosperous, so , finds secret country stronger hair after they had found, and that is to rely on the power of the State to develop industry and commerce instead of relying on Adam Smith praised the “invisible hand.” So , different from the representatives of the Anglo-American free market economy, Germany, and Japan beginning chose a different from the Anglo-American model of development, they emphasized the role of government and the country, with particular emphasis liberal order (note the word, liberal order!), planning, cooperation, consensus, compromise, unity and so on. German philosopher Habermas rational emphasis on communication, not merely because of philosophical speculation, but because of the practical need of society in Germany. Since the German Bismarck model of development called the “social market economy” (Social Market) “corporatist market economy”, etc., although this development model adjusted several times in a hundred years of history, especially in the Third Reich was interrupt, but, on the whole, it has been continued to the present ( “German postwar economic history,” Abbe Wales Hauser, 2018). In Japan, “officials (including the Liberal Democratic Party, the opposition, etc.) – Government agencies (civil servants) – Financial Services Sector (union)” constitute a fairly stable “iron triangle”, which is considered Japan an important secret of success ( “post-war Inspiration success of the Japanese economy, “Ishihara enjoy a, 2019). So , we need not to “socialism with Chinese characteristics” misgivings. Now that capitalism has multiple modes, China should have a system of self-confidence and self-confident way. Almost the same because of historical reasons, left the world after the two countries made little colony of the late 19th century, so the , they chose war, from the time of great hope Conservative country where grab a cup of soup, which is when the Western powers in the prevalence of “universal logic of power”, also resulted in the so-called “Thucydides trap” ( “a doomed war,” Graham Allison, 2017 ), so there is subsequent Russo-Japanese war, World war I, World war II, the Japanese invasion of China and the Pacific war and so on. In 1945, the two countries have become rubble, economic and social collapse completely, high inflation. But, miraculously, after three years of restoration and development, by 1980, they became the world’s great powers, GDP respectively the second and third highest in the world. Especially the Japanese management model caused a huge psychological impact on US companies to become “management” textbooks, only new knowledge challenge the Anglo-American models and new management methods. “Flowers last forever.” Unfortunately, from the beginning after 1990, the two countries almost simultaneously plunged into a long recession and stagnation. The most direct reason is difficult in Germany because German reunification and the enormous burden of integration, while Japan is because the stock market and real estate bubble economy burst. In fact, there is a large developing country context of globalization, China and India started market-oriented reforms, cheap labor and huge market to attract multinational companies and outsourcing industry. In 1999, “The Economist” has published an article called the German “The sick man of Europe” (Sick Man of Europe), and the Japanese sadly lamented the “lost two decades” (Reference Nobuo Ikeda book of the same name, 2009). Therefore, , Germany and Japan almost completely missed since around 1990, originating from the United States the third industrial revolution, that is, the information technology revolution. So , in the field of Internet, USA TodayThere FAANG (Facebook, Apple, Amazon, Netflix, Google), etc., and Chinese Huawei, BAT, Jingdong, the US group, to fight a lot, millet, and other headlines today. However, Germany and Japan in the field of Internet hardly any particularly well-known large companies. First, the United States, and later China, has become the biggest winner of the third industrial revolution and the wave of globalization. Surprisingly, beginning approximately from around 2008, when the United States is deep financial crisis, the slow recovery in Germany and Japan, they are in this era of global turmoil, relying on their high-end manufacturing industry, show an incredible toughness, in many fields, such as new energy, new materials, life sciences, precision machining and other areas of the world’s leading ( “seven secrets of Germany”, 2018, Lehmann, Ao Dezi). A few examples be corroborated: Huawei’s high-end phones P30 Pro in 53.2% of the parts from Japan (Nihon Keizai Shimbun, 2019); and US-designed 787 is basically a quasi in Japan; today’s Toyota has not only It is the world’s largest, highest efficiency automobile manufacturers (2018 profit of 22.5 billion US dollars, equivalent to about five major Chinese automobile manufacturers sum of 13.7 billion dollars in profit doubled), and has become a successful transformation of hydrogen energy manufacturers and service providers. Speaking in Germany, our previous impression of Germany is a fairly conservative country, entrepreneurs active rate is very low (please refer to historical data of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor GEM). However, once the “poor and sexy” Berlin (former Berlin Mayor language), has now become a land of entrepreneurship and innovation, attracting creative people and businesses from around the world. Not to export Bastide country in terms of precision machine tools and luxury cars are made in Germany and in Japan in the world enjoy a high brand premium. In particular, until now, only Germany, Japan, China and the United States to seize the fourth wave of the industrial revolution. April 2013, Germany first proposed the “Industry 4.0 strategy”; February 2019, Germany officially released the “National Industrial Strategy 2030″; December 2016, the Japanese publishing industry value chain frame of reference IVRA (Industrial Value Chain Reference Architecture); May 2015, the Chinese government”Made in China 2025”; in October 2018, the United States proposed a belated “The United States advanced manufacturing leadership strategy.” Missed the third wave of industrial revolution in Germany and Japan, determined to play to their strengths, not to miss the fourth industrial revolution. Similarity between China and Germany and Japan make it possible to learn from the Dean of the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Kishore Mahbubani (Kishore Mahbubani) believes that after Nixon’s visit to China in 1972, “the United States has changed the Chinese.” Although this view is very extreme, but in the past four decades, we really learned a lot from the Anglo-American. Just as an example, since 1978, the reform and opening up, as of 2019, China has about 500 million people studying abroad, of which about 3.5 million returned to the motherland, of which about 70 percent had studied Anglo-American, left and right while the other 30%, respectively studying other 12 countries or regions, including Canada, Australia, Germany, Japan, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, Singapore, Hong Kong and China. I do similar study in Germany or Japan who has never been mainstream. This leads us to understand a lot, rushed to copy and paste the Anglo-American model, including empirical method that a management study of the Americans engage in a full copy to China, regardless of whether the underlying really useful for the Anglo-American model of development. The development model in Germany and Japan, we understand relatively much less. From academics, government officials to entrepreneurs, most of us are very superstitious soul of Adam Smith emphasized individual freedom and the “invisible hand”, while the “visible hand” is the use of a kind of pragmatism, utilitarianism attitude, and use any, Dayong special use; if they can not be used, on the moral and rhetorical big lash. Chinese people’s soul and body completely separated, and no profound identity may under certain circumstances it would only “visible hand” of rationality and legitimacy, and in some extreme cases, the bird in the culturally and psychologically. ” invisible hand “is not only invisible, but also the fact that may not exist (” reverse the tide of globalization, “Stiglitz, 2019). In fact, because of the huge institutional differences, cultural differences (for example, individualism and collectivism), stage of development and historical development path different from the Anglo-American is not the best example for learning Chinese, German and Japanese is. Because China and Germany, in Japan’s huge cultural and institutional similarities, making this and learnbecome possible. Wherein the logic foregoing has described a simple. China and Japan similarity in culture is obvious. Here to talk about a single German. 2015, Tsinghua University economist, David has worked with the founder of the German consulting firm Roland Berger, completed a study for the German “way of the future Chinese economy: China can learn from the German model,” he says “Compared to other ethnic and social, including the US and the UK, Germany and the social values ​​and basic mechanism is similar to most Chinese.” For example: “The German people in the choice between individual freedom and social order, than in the United States, Britain and other Western countries, closer to China in Germany, people compare advocating social order, willing to accept a wide variety of community. economic and political institutional arrangements, long-term to maintain social harmony and stability. ” “The legal framework in Germany and China have a certain similarity. In Germany, the law is set by the state, unlike the United Kingdom and the United States, the law is scattered by the various courts decide cases by the success of evolved.” “Germany and China’s society people have relatively strong desire for change. In the US, people generally have a sense of superiority as a social economic and political systems, America’s elite and the people believe that the universality of the American system is the best system, the US founding father they are saints, US economic problems (including financial crisis and fiscal problems) can not be traced back to the United States up basic political and social system, can only be patched to change in economic policy and local legislative level, but not for large-scale social system improvement. ” In the context of Sino-US trade war, when the United States tried to the Chinese decoupling, we need a deep understanding of Chinese history, culture and political system, a deep understanding of the laws of Great 500 years, it should be from the Anglo-American as a teacher, turned with counterparts in Germany and Japan. What are the experiences of Germany and Japan that we can learn? Experience to learn (and lessons) too much CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright , can not list them. Most importantly, business ethics, values ​​and talent. “Corporate values ​​guide and stakeholder relationships (including corporate and financial systems, large enterprises and small and medium enterprises and employees, etc.), educational system to guide talent and wealth distribution. Germany and Japan compared to the United States the biggest difference is that the national education equality, generally high quality, as well as educational services for enterprises “(Cheng Ying, personal micro-channel payFlow, 2019.8.30). From the perspective of the general pattern of business management, I propose ten succinctly worth learning experience. In particular, as a management scholar, I constantly remind myself not to be too traditional areas of cross-border economists go (for example, real estate), so , my focus is business management experience can learn in. At the same time, I am also deeply aware of the successful experience of every country, is a mutual coupling and intertwined system, they interact with self-consistency within the system. Because Germany and Japan and China there is a big difference in terms of covers, body mass, almost mono-ethnic, etc., so , we can not simply copy any one of them, and give up other supportive , institutional and cultural relevance. In short, the overall replication impossible, there is no need, however, “stone hills, can learn.” First, the business ethics. Traced back to the Opium War in 1840, China in the past 170 years, the biggest problem is not the growth of a set roots in their traditional culture, but also the integration of cultural modernity. Our current culture is a hodgepodge, a large platter, there is no social consensus, opportunistic and only what they need. Four decades of reform and opening up, the biggest problem is the confusion of values ​​and moral decay. In the business world, the most prominent manifestations of serious absence of a high standard of business ethics. In contrast, Germany and Japan, the two developing country, while trying to catch up with the Anglo-American developed countries, still largely retain their traditional, these two countries are traditional and modern scores very high country (refer to the World Value Survey), which is the most worth studying. Japan, for example. From Suzuki Shozo (1579, secular life = Buddhist practice), Nishikawa as See (1685, businessman systematic philosophy), Shitianmeiyan (1744 to encourage legitimate business activity and profits), to Ninomiya Sontoku (1787-1856, directed the revival of rural policy and thinkers use agricultural policy reported that Germany thought), Shibusawa Eiichi (1840-1931, the “moral economy unity of theory”, involved about 500 company founded and business), then today is the same as a saint worship Inamori (Zen work, “respect love” and so on).Why in Japan, the abacus and the “Analects of Confucius” may be joined together? Why be moral and economic unity, justice and benefit can be unity? And this problem is still seriously troubled and tortured today’s China company. Second, corporate governance structures and mechanisms. Is different from the Anglo-American business, too much emphasis on the interests of Shareholder, shareholder primacy, German and Japanese companies from 100 years ago, with particular emphasis on Stakeholder, emphasis on corporate social responsibility. Japan nearly two hundred years ago in Sichuan businessmen have long put forward the “triple good” (meet customers, business and community interests), and persevere in the end, its ethical implications of today’s business enterprises in Japan. There have been some excellent research and sustainable management of small and medium enterprises in Japan, found that these companies operate is to emphasize “the mission and responsibilities of five people”, in which the priorities are: 1. To make the staff and family well-being of employees (surprising there are family members of employees);! 2 For outsourcing, downstream manufacturers employee happiness (not bullying);! 3 make the customer happy; 4. To make the local community a happy and prosperous; 5. Finally, creating a natural shareholders happiness (this is the result, not an end) ( “Japan’s greatest company: sustainable management of flash soul”, Koji Sakamoto, 2010). Please pay special attention to the five priorities of stakeholders. Priority really matters! Third, labor relations. Based on these values, in particular on the company’s internal governance, Germany and Japan were basically the way labor system (cohabitation) is. A study showed that Japan’s economic heyday, Japanese companies have a very typical “workers managed enterprises” ( “Japanese modern enterprise system,” Kenichi Imai, Komiya, 1995). Japanese Trade Union closely involved in the company’s operations, to improve the performance of brainstorming, rarely as completely the opposite occurs. German trade unions after 1978 years ago, had to wage growth raised too high requirements, once led to tense labor relations, and finally employers maximize the use of machines instead of manpower, so , then they are getting smarter taken through consultation with business managers and shareholders, both to ensure the continued moderate growth in wages, but also to ensure the normal operation of enterprises ( “Why the German model look more successful,” Duval, 2016). In Germany, the strike is subject to strict legallimited. Recently we saw a confrontation between the documentary “American factory” in the US auto union UAW and the Federation of Fuyao US companies in Germany and Japan is basically non-existent. Fourth, select high-end manufacturing as a strategic industry. Around 1990, when the Berlin Wall fell, Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union, the reunification of Germany when Francis Fukuyama issued the “end of history” assertion. In fact, this is not the end of history, this is precisely the beginning of the American altar. United States and Britain, was kidnapped by technology giants and oligarchs, in order to obtain higher monopoly profits, does not consider the interests of the working class of the country, the outsourcing of manufacturing to developing countries, resulting in a hollowing out of domestic industries, over-reliance on the service sector and the financial sector, leading to high unemployment, falling incomes of the middle class, also resulted in today’s Sino-US trade war. Is different from the Anglo-American, German and Japanese full use of the advantages of globalization, the outsourcing of some low-end industries to China and India, or decisively abandoned the mass market, for example, the NEC PC sale to LENOVO, the SHARP LCD Foxconn and other factories to sell, and then enter the high-end manufacturing. They close intimate contact with industry-class B2B customers, understanding their needs, give full play to small-scale customized production of flexible advantages, as the chain indispensable part. Beginning of August 2019 Japan and South Korea trade war is a vivid case, by limiting the three important Japanese semiconductor elements exported to South Korea, precision strike South Korean semiconductor industry, allows us to get a glimpse of Japanese companies to master the technical know-how of the whole industry chain Impact. On the contrary, the vast majority of Chinese manufacturing industry is still in the stage of 2.0, the urgent need to upgrade and enhance the brand and quality, let themselves into a ring can not be replaced. Fifth, differences in corporate strategy and business objectives. Compared to the United States and China, in recent years, the number of large companies in Germany and Japan, once renowned the world over constantly shrinking, does not account for any advantage. July 2019 release of “Fortune” 500 US 121 top companies, China 129 (including Hong Kong, China 10), Japan 52, Germany 29. So, in the end, Germany and Japan powerful secret of it? More unusual is the small and medium enterprises. Hermann Simon, twenty years ago, first proposed the concept of hidden champions ( “hidden champions” Simon, 2000). According to his 2017 statistics, the wholeThere are invisible world champions more than 2,300, of which there are 1307 in Germany, the United States 366, Japan 220, China has only about 78. Invisible Champion, not seeking bigger and stronger, more focused on doing deep, becoming the first segment of each market segment. Most of these companies continue to run for more than two or three generations. Their characteristics are: has ambitious goals; stay focused; use of global strategy; and innovation; proximity to customers; through the creation of value, not price war, long-term competitive advantage; have efficient staff and strong leadership; general They will enter the very demanding market segments. Japan is a big country longevity enterprises, is a model of sustainable development. According to statistics, the number of enterprises from continuing operations more than 100 years, the Japanese have 25321, United States 11735, Germany 7632. From continuing operations of more than 200 years the number of enterprises, Japan 3937, Germany 1850; the number of Japanese companies more than 300 years have 1937, the number more than 500 years, Japanese companies have 147, the number more than 1,000 years of Japanese companies 21 ( “artisan spirit: Japanese family enterprises and longevity genes”, Toshio Goto, 2018). China’s century-old how many do? State finds old about 1500 or so. More than 200 years of business it? Strictly going concern little more of a story. Japanese management scholar Goto Toshio study found that genes Japanese longevity enterprises mainly include: based on the long-term vision of the business idea; attention to sustainable growth; continue to build and strengthen their own advantages; long-term importance to its relations with stakeholders; ensure security, operating within their means; strong willingness to let the next generation to pass down; most are in some special industries (eg, wine, food, hotel, hotel, traditional handicrafts, etc.). In particular, these companies stand on longevity “is the corporate social instrument” position, a debt of gratitude for his continuous grace interests of stakeholders and society, not ambitious, pragmatic and consistent with enterprise capabilities in business activities, which is the Japanese the so-called “Yu Zhi spirit.” The other hand, Chinese enterprises, the average life expectancy of no more than three start-ups, the United States is about 7 years, Japan more than 12 years. Flippancy, lack of strategic focus and artisan spirit of Opus Dei, is an important reason for Chinese companies short-lived. Sixth, the unique relationship between large enterprises and SMEs, Foundation for International Relations and the Chamber of Commerce business sideFace to play the role of the combined fleet. Anglo-American countries emphasize free competition among enterprises, encourage equal opportunity, equal in particular market access, and the Japanese government and society to encourage more cooperation and alliance between the companies, they want to maintain a more orderly competition, very few The actual implementation of the “anti-monopoly law.” Thus , among Japanese companies, between SMEs and large companies, often cross each other ownership, exchange directors, together with the main bank system, forming a so-called “series “(Keiretsu) Group. This invisible system designed to ensure the stability of the majority of business-related industrial chain and predictability, is conducive to maintaining long-term transactions, reduce transaction costs, of course, is the result of a prosperity, a loss for both sides ( “SMEs in Japan and large corporate relations, “Sun Chuan, 2006). American scholar Lorenz (Robert Lawrence) had published an article entitled “The efficiency is still exclusive, the Japanese conglomerate’s input behavior” in 1991, that this “family group” for foreign companies to enter the Japanese, some strong form the invisible barriers to competition and should be banned. This article had at the time caused a lot of controversy. In fact, it is completely international business rules design in different cultures and systems based on “public that goes, rational woman and she said.” Chen Chunhua teacher last two years, with special emphasis on “symbiotic” concept, and the symbiosis between enterprises most likely to see in Germany and Japan. Compared with European and American countries, the degree of internationalization of Chinese enterprises is still low. If you adhere to strict standards, is a company’s sales in any one continent can not exceed 25% of total sales, Huawei probably only be regarded as China’s only international company that operates in more than 170 countries and regions. The 1960’s, when Japanese and German companies began internationalization, they help the consortium and trading network throughout the world, in the form of a combined fleet, explore the international market, Chinese enterprises such experience is worth learning. Japan’s largest six consortia (eg, Mitsubishi, Mitsui, Nomura, etc.) under the trading companies, all over the world, is the vanguard of the internationalization of Japanese companies, they usually one step ahead of other companies, in the form of trade contacts overseas markets, long-term local roots, collecting local social political and economic information, share it with other companies followed the direct foreign investment in the local (FDI)At the same time, they will be representatives of Japanese companies reflect their collective demands to the local government. These trading companies and consortia leaders, monthly dinner meetings, communication and intelligence ( “Jing said Japan”, Xu Jingbo, 2019.7). German Chamber of Commerce, although not as Japanese trading companies so pervasive, however, also plays a similar role. While Chinese enterprises in the process, not only alone, and often defeating each other, competing for the project, given the chance the others each break. Seventh, the financial system. In contrast, the US Wall Street financial model, as opposed to Germany and Japan’s economic strength, their financial systems to be conserved and much smaller. Although the bubble economy period, the Tokyo Stock Exchange had a market capitalization can buy the entire United States, however, financial and securities markets in Germany and Japan, on the whole far less developed Anglo-American, and is not the focus of their development. Academic studies often describe Germany as a “weak investor protection …… stock market is extremely limited, almost no acquisitions, taking over the banking sector for public and private companies have the overwhelming influence” countries (Alexander Dyck, 2005, P .278). In addition, unlike the Anglo-American emphasis on the stock market financing function in enterprise development, German and Japanese banks often hold considerable shares of their company, which is the so-called main bank system. For a long time, as an independent force banks have been active in the company’s Supervisory Board. This relationship between banks and enterprises, long-term and stable, directly affect key decisions. Xu Tao, an economist at the “Beyond: technology, market and economic growth in history” (2018), a book distinguishes between two financial shape, he found a market-oriented financial (typical of venture capital, investment banking, stock market, Anglo American is a typical representative) contribute significantly disruptive innovation; and bank-oriented financial (credit to various banks as the main representative of Germany and Japan) is more conducive to sustained innovation. This is why Germany and Japan, excellent performance in the second industrial revolution, and a variety of catching-up economic development, and financial reasons in the third industrial revolution force incompetent. I am the most confusing question is: in this world, whether there is a perfect model, be able to market-oriented financial and banking oriented financial integration within the same economic body, and operate freely? Paradox integration easier said than done. Look at the past two decades, China’s development, especially in the continued high real estate pricesPrices, P2P constantly mine explosion and the “double hit” full speed ahead under the circumstances, the desire to make quick money do always overcome Industrial patience. Can the same system, the construction of a double high-market-oriented financial and banking oriented financial? Difficult, the needs of future proved. Many of our scholars and entrepreneurs are not fully aware of the Wall Street-style financial harm, many entrepreneurs to “business is listed rite” as a credo ( “Venture thirty-six military regulations,” Sun Taoran, 2011). They did not envisaged in this world there is another form of business, especially a lot of family businesses in Germany and Japan, firmly rejected the market, refused to be external capital controls. Huawei’s success, for the first time in China demonstrates this possibility. More and more Chinese enterprises need to sink the heart away from the temptation to venture capital, with its own funds and debt financing rolling Development Bank (refer to domestic Huawei recently for the first time public offering of 30 billion corporate bonds). Even in the face VC, we also need to establish a new pattern of behavior, “slow and loyalty” should perhaps be the new – Specification (Hao Xi Long, massive big data company CEO, micro-channel circle of friends between the “corporate venturing”, 2019.8 ). I believe that even extreme, if the Chinese stock market trading only one day a week, the company only released annual reports, and perhaps allow us to build a healthier stock market, so the stock market truly serve the developing industries. In China continued opening up of the financial system, to play the stock market for direct financing aspects of science and technology enterprise (for example, the GEM and the Branch board), we should not go far too fast pace, do not be blinded by the Anglo-American financial model. Eighth, basic research and applied research to be used in different modes, both to encourage innovation beginning, but also to encourage the flow of innovation (this is a term professor at Stanford University Shedd Sun “source of innovation” in), to accelerate the pace of technological transformation. Max Planck Institute in Germany and Leibniz Association, a group of scientists led by Nobel laureate level team to do basic research, trying to find the unknown law, they are active in the forefront of scientific research. And inside Europe’s largest applied technology research organization Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, a large number of close cooperation with scientists and engineers to SMEs to jointly develop application-oriented research, speed up conversion of knowledge and technology. Even companies not have to use high-density capital investment in technological innovation, continuous innovation and the use of non-high-density low-tech investment carried out, but also can provide a significant performanceeffect. Som and Kena Er ( “German Manufacturing Innovation mystery”, 2016) found that, in Germany, a considerable number of low-tech and not a lot of research investment, non-R & D enterprise, which is equivalent to China’s traditional businesses, however, value they generate even occupy nearly 42% of the total industrial added value of the share. They often use a hybrid innovative model, i.e. the available prior art knowledge and market-oriented improvements, in particular by the combination of these techniques and knowledge, high technology components finally obtained innovation. This case, the Japanese companies abound, especially in lean manufacturing and site improvement. Because they are facing a situation of highly specialized knowledge, knowledge is a sticky, difficult to migrate, more is in the form of trade secrets and know-how required extensive field experience, rather than profound theoretical knowledge. Scholars call this innovation is called the Black Hand innovation (Dirty hands Innovation). Turning to China’s scientific and technological innovation, it is entirely mismatch between market demand for research and technological research institutions. Research institutes behind closed doors, around the fund, papers and title transfer, so-called technical achievement transformation pattern, more than three decades, proved to be essentially a dead end road. Mr. Zhou Lu Ming, former deputy director of the Shenzhen Science and Technology Bureau, former President of CAST, the “China Innovation” Shenzhen Kung Fu “How to Make,” a paper, which presents a very sharp reflection, he said, “30 years ago, in order to the so-called science and technology to solve the problem, economic mismatch, the state launched the project of reform of scientific research institutions, but basically did not touch the fundamental issue of the scientific research system, when the system of scientific research but also because of lack of money to the rules of the market economy there somewhat in awe heart, today, Chinese scientific research system in the allocation of resources, technology assessment, policy development has more than 30 years ago, the right to speak, and thus become more arrogant. our research systems from the concepts, methods to occupation are not ready to be on the good conduct of China’s industrial core technology providers “(Long Zhong policy think tank, micro-channel article, 2019.9). In fact, China is most lacking is exactly this kind of application Fraunhofer research institutes, SMEs make up for shortcomings in the form of research and development capabilities of the platform. I boldly suggested, the Chinese Academy of Sciences teachers and some colleges and universities streaming out, to liberate them from the subject and papers out to form a technology-oriented application development platform. And the rest to the people, we reared him with the most generous compensation packageThey give them full freedom, not so much the assessment, let them concentrate on toward the peak of the Nobel Prize to climb. Ninth, human resources management. Lift the Japanese human resource management system, we often think of lifetime employment and seniority sequence and so on. In fact, Japanese-style human resource management after the economic bubble burst, has undergone a lot of adjustment, but the basic spirit is still preserved. Former official and lifetime employment, and now has become a life-long employment and those who have the ability to diversify forms of employment. Previous pyramid organization, through the established procedures, by the Division of orders, has now become a team the way they operate have accommodative, the pursuit of stable long-term benefits ( “the success or failure of the Japanese economy after the war revelation”, enjoy a Ishihara, 2019 ). Similarly, because the Germans are quite balanced regional development, big cities and small cities, and even did not differ significantly between rural areas, so , German SMEs are widely distributed in various small cities , country, and even more remote valleys and forests. Their intimate relationship between employer and employee, a high degree of trust, often two or three generations to serve a single enterprise, although not expressly provided lifetime employment, but is also very common. So , is different from the high liquidity of the US and China, the German daily long-term employment is a distinctive feature of human system. Speaking strong secret German industrial system, it is often attributed to the German unique dual education and apprenticeship system. The United States and China, as in Germany, the average worker in the manufacturing sector is generally never went to college or junior college, but German workers have a very peculiar advantage: formal and informal training. And the United States or China’s workers, or suddenly drop out of school, or simply the end of education, not to extend beyond high school. In contrast, German workers trained from an early age begin to master valuable skills. Germany’s liberal arts training school students prepare for college, and Realschule train students to participate in technical work. About 342 German class a recognized apprenticeship career (or jobs) to provide technical and social areas of the company in-house training and classroom instruction. Apprenticeship training usually lasts two and a half to three and a half, during which time, an apprentice to do a full time job. Each apprentice must obtain hands-on training and practical experience, learn from highly targeted special skills. especiallyLocal vocational schools often establish close relationships with local industry, which complement each other, mutual benefit. Many countries, including the United States and Spain, Germany’s dual system of education and apprenticeships are very envious of, are imitation learning (from the Obama period began), however, most only know how to fur, it is difficult to mimic the entire organizational system . China is currently the nearly 700 three full transition to college or vocational education and training highly skilled personnel, this is a very wise choice. But in this educational transformation process, the biggest challenge lies in changing people’s negative perceptions traditional manual labor; unrealistic expectations for the university and expectations for their children and so on; really establish close cooperation between schools and businesses, as well as to overcome include the impact of services, including express delivery industry. Because the number of express industry without going through job training, three days directly to get started, and pretty much make money. The culture may be engaged in complex technical job skills, they need a relatively long learning and investment. Tenth, the income distribution is really important! Narrow the gap between rich and poor, the establishment of a fair society. Over the years, Drucker often criticized the United States the problem of excessive CEO pay, that the ideal gap between CEO pay and employees should be about 20 times. However, criticism for many years, a growing problem, which has become a chronic disease of American capitalism. According to statistics, wage income between US CEO and staff of an average difference of 300 times. In 2000, that is, the Internet bubble reached its highest point when the gap between the two even had up to about 400 times. In contrast, the gap between them from 1945 to 1980 between Japan just about three times. After even after the bubble economy, capacity and performance Marxist doctrine in Japan rise, up to now the gap is about 25 times. Similarly, the German general staff of the CEO and the income gap is much lower than the United States (but significantly higher than Japan), reaching about 50 times. For example, in 2016, Volkswagen CEO’s annual salary is 52 times that of ordinary employees. In addition to the distribution of income, it is also concerned about other types of income, such as power and prestige and so on. Long-Term Credit Bank of Japan for many years served the Takeuchi economic experts, the definition of checks and balances power structure of Japanese society with the following formula: “(power) + (income) + (reputation) = constant.” In this regard, we enjoy a Ishihara (2019) made the following note: “In the dayThis, though ministers and officials stay in power, however, as civil servants their salaries far less than the financial community, reputation is not too high. The financial sector lucrative income but no real political power, it is not respected by the world. Academia and the media and power, and generous missed, but have high social reliability. Let power, wealth, fame at the same time to focus on a very, Japanese-style capitalism is the key to obtain stability and development. “The other hand, Chinese society is a” winner takes all “world, the horse on the distribution of wealth too effects are particularly severe. invisible income obtained by the officials of power far greater than his salary, coupled with the age-old concept of Chinese society, “official position”, the officer’s reputation is far greater than other occupations. in the past four decades, has been ranked in the “farming,” the last “business”, became the second, an intermediate force for social reform, after officials in social status, income on property is overridden on top of any other social and professional. and “who” or intellectuals in the traditional sense is sharp marginalized. this is a tragedy of our country and the times. China’s management turned to three studies in order to meet “from the Anglo-American as a teacher steering with counterparts in Germany and Japan, “Chinese management scholars must do three turn. here, I shall simply mention, because these academic areas On already a lot (please refer Cai Yulin, Han Wei, Zhao Xiangyang, Sun Jiwei, et al. Paper). First, we need to from the papers and issues-oriented, turning the scene doctrine and empirical research orientation, need more attention for .-depth study of a particular industry or specific types of businesses, for example, wrote, “Japan’s greatest company: sustainable management of the flash of the soul” of Koji Sakamoto, who visited more than 6,000 SMEs how many of us can say. himself visited 60 companies in the second, we need to from quantitative economics and psychology-based paradigm, in order to shift more? research “political science – anthropology political Economy – – sociology” as a prime example of paradigm of Sino-uS trade war, in essence, not a trade issue, not an economic issue but a political issue, science and technology strategy, international relations, etc. third, we need from positivism, scientism, the so-called ” value-neutral “research paradigm shift emphasis on national culture and characteristics of the system to Hermeneutics and critical theory oriented Research. Only in this way can we revive “who” function in the role of moral conscience, upgradeSocial status of intellectuals. Conclusion When the Chinese economy to the stage of rapid development of high-quality development, of which US trade war artillery so many people began to reflect on the limitations of the Anglo-American model, we should solidify a long-term frame of reference from the Anglo-American steering Germany and Japan, to imagine another possibilities, another development modes, one inherently more fit with China’s development path, which is the Chinese enterprises around the past the only way. However, management model and development path of reflection and comparison of different countries, is not our purpose. Professor Chen Chunhua after reading the first draft of this article, when rightly pointed out: in terms of today’s “China Enterprise Management Research”, is no longer with whom to compare, but how “Facing Chinese business management practices” issue; companies fresh practice, even to ourselves as a consumer are overwhelmed, not to mention as a challenge to academic research. We need “the sky” back “to see”, from “Home & Abroad” to “learn relatively dry,” to keep up with the pace of practice, this sense of crisis, I am more and more weight. “(Micro-channel private exchange, 2019.9.18) In this regard, I fully agree. In 1983, when Yuan Baohua, deputy director of the National Economic Council’s guideline proposed reform of Chinese enterprises,” we, absorbing, integration process, dreams. “passage of time, we have seen a number of well-established in China, both with Chinese characteristics, but also combines modernity management of the road, for example, Huawei, Alibaba, etc. we need to learn from Germany and Japan mode the basis of merit, fresh face of Chinese enterprises management practices, and embark on a road full of good will and efficiency in order with the world, and even lead the world in the future.


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