Why do American rich people have high income but pay less taxes? okorder

No one denies that the social wealth of the United States is highly concentrated in a small number of hands, but it is surprising that the wealth of a few rich people is so high. The problem of uneven distribution of wealth in the United States did not arise from today, but in the 1980s it has become a concern of society and the public. However, the balance of social wealth distribution in the past 30 years has not been greatly tilted towards the middle class, and the personal income tax of the rich has been greatly reduced during the Bush administration, which has led to the rapid growth of wealthy American family wealth.
From 2001 to 2007, various families in the United States have made some changes in their wealth possession, and the balance is more inclined to the rich families. The proportion of wealth owned by 1% of the wealthiest households is rising, with a ratio of 33.4% in 2001, 34.3% in 2004, and 34.6% in 2007. The wealthy 19% of households now have a wealth ratio of more than 50%, from 51.0% in 2001 to 50.3% in 2004 and 50.4% in 2007. From 2 (X) 1 to 2007, 80% of households in the United States had a one percentage point decrease in wealth over the previous 10 years. In 2001, the ratio was 15.6%, in 2004 it was 15.3%, and in 2007 it was 15.0%.
The higher the income, the more the individual income tax should be paid. This is probably the reason that even children can understand. However, the taxpayer statistics released by the US Internal Revenue Service show that in 2007, the wealthiest 400 families in the United States had an average annual income of more than 300 million US dollars, and the lowest income was 143 million US dollars, but their average tax payment only accounted for 16.6 of income. %, set a minimum tax record since 1992.
In 2007, for the wealthy Americans, it was a year before the economic crisis. The average annual income of 400 wealthy families was $3.447 billion, an increase of 31% from the average income of 2.6330 billion in 2000. It has more than doubled the average annual income of $131.09 million in 2001. The total income of these rich people totaled more than 138 billion US dollars, an increase of more than 30 billion from 2006’s 105.3 billion US dollars.
During the Clinton administration, the United States first published the income report of the richest 400 families. In the Bush era, the income reports of the 400 richest families were no longer public. After Obama took office in 2009, he reopened the income of the 400 richest families in the United States, which gave the public a chance to re-examine how much these super-rich people earned each year and how much personal income tax they paid.
The reason why American super-rich people are super-receiving but low-level taxation is mainly related to their income channels. The income of the 400 richest families is only 6.5% of their income. Their main income comes from capital appreciation, and the government imposes a tax rate of only 15% on capital. In 2007, the wealthiest households in the United States accounted for 66.3% of their income from capital gains, and capital appreciation and dividends accounted for three-quarters of their income.

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New York has a decade of smoking ban okorder

The New York State’s indoor smoking ban has entered its tenth year. Today, smoky restaurants, offices, and even smoky bars, buses, and trains are almost a historical shot. Those who support the smokers claim that the smoking ban has saved the lives of countless people, and opponents believe that the fear that restaurants, bars, etc. will lose customers has also vanished.
This indoor air purification law of the state legislature changed the lives of New Yorkers. The smoking ban requires smoking outside to allow non-smokers to avoid second-hand smoke in the workplace every day. “Holly, in 2002, New York bars and restaurants were a greenhouse of carcinogens,” It is an extremely dangerous environment. “Holler pointed out that in the decade from 1999 to 2009, the number of smokers in New York fell from 22% to 17%, and those who intend to quit smoking increased from 54% to 65%.
However, Whistler, the chief executive of the Empire State Restaurant and Tavern Association, pointed out that at the beginning of the smoking ban, some people were unemployed and closed, and the association had accused the New York State of the restaurant and bar operators. But this situation did not last long. After 18 months of the implementation of the smoking ban, the smoking of customers stayed at home, or to private clubs and fraternities that allowed smoking, which caused some businesses to plummet, resulting in closures and some layoffs in restaurants and bars.
Whistler said that restaurant business fell by 3% to 4%, bar business fell by 18%, and members of the Empire State Restaurant and Tavern Association lost 20%. Today, unless there is competition from private clubs and bars that allow smoking, the industry rarely complains about it. These businesses are returning to normal soon, but they are not getting better as anti-smokers expect.
The New York State Department of Health will announce the latest report on the impact of the law next week, and on the 24th is the 10th day of the implementation of the indoor smoking ban and the fine of 1,000 yuan.
A health and economic impact report on the New York Indoor Clean Air Act, published in 2006, found that 80% of New Yorkers supported the law in 2005, including one-third to one-half of smokers. . However, the Health Department quoted academic reports that the indoor smoking ban has no positive impact. The Health Department’s poll found that due to the implementation of the law, New York State residents were only slightly more frequented in restaurants and bars. Holler of the Anti-Cancer Association said that there are still many efforts to be made. At present, there are still 25,000 deaths from smoking in New York every year. The association also predicts that 380,000 children and adolescents under the age of 18, Will die early due to smoking.

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Smart kitchen appliances are already on the road okorder

According to the “2018 China Smart Home Industry Research Report”, the size of China’s smart home market in 2017 was 325.47 billion yuan. In 2018, the size of China’s smart home market is close to 400 billion yuan. It is expected that the market will maintain a 21.4% compound year in the next three years. The growth rate will reach 581.93 billion yuan in 2020, a year-on-year increase of 20.8%.

From the data point of view, the era of smart home has officially arrived. Jiju.com believes that smart homes attract a lot of attention in various fields because of the many concepts of artificial intelligence, smart city, and consumption upgrade. In the field of kitchen appliances, the boss, Fang Tai, and Vantage have already set their sights on smart kitchen appliances, and they all hope to take a share of the smart home market.

In recent years, according to incomplete statistics, the number of integrated stove brands has exceeded 300, and a large number of integrated stove brands are born every year. In the face of the booming development of the integrated stove industry, the kitchen appliance industry giant boss also officially entered the integrated stove market last year. In addition, the traditional kitchen appliances such as Midea, Shuaikang and Haier have also been involved in the integrated stove field. The reason behind this is not only to see it. The huge profit margin brought by the integrated stove market is due to the fact that in the future smart kitchen competition, the integrated stove is undoubtedly a weapon. At the moment, the “post-80s” and “post-90s” consumer groups have become the main force of household consumption. They often have more interest in intelligent products and have higher acceptance. The integrated stoves precisely meet their needs, making cooking easier, and transforming the kitchen from a smokey, boring place to a center of food, entertainment and sharing.

For the construction of smart kitchens, integrated stoves have an indispensable position. On the one hand, unlike traditional kitchen appliances, the integrated stove integrates functions such as range hood, gas stove and steamer/oven/disinfection cabinet/locker, and its integration advantage is very prominent. On the other hand, the integrated stove can meet the security (gas leak detection alarm, anti-dry, anti-leakage protection, etc.) required to build a smart kitchen; entertainment and learning functions (switching playback of background music through voice assistant, followed by video learning) Cooking, etc.) Although the integrated stove has not been able to communicate with other electrical appliances and cannot work together, it is believed that there will be more room for improvement in the future.

From traditional kitchen appliances to smart kitchen appliances, the current kitchen has been able to achieve partial intelligence, driven by the wave of smart homes. With the further development of the Internet of Things, AI technology and artificial intelligence, kitchen intelligence The application scenario will be more abundant. However, we still have a long way to go from the real smart kitchen, and the intelligent road of Chinese kitchen appliances is just getting started.
(provided by Shenyang Building Materials Network) <

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Regarding smart homes, which development methods are more reliable for single products and systems? okorder

[Guide] At present, the industry with the fastest development, the most grounded products and the largest market in the Internet of Things, smart home has always been concerned. However, the degree of attention is there. The real trillion-dollar market size has not yet developed, and smart home products have not really achieved product landing. However, the real development of the smart home market is only a matter of time, and this time node has been

   currently the fastest growing Internet of things, the most grounded products, the largest market, smart home Has always been a concern. However, the degree of attention is there. The real trillion-dollar market size has not yet developed, and smart home products have not really achieved product landing. However, the real development of the smart home market is only a matter of time, and this time node is not far away. So for the enterprise, how should the smart home go this way to pave the way for the upcoming market?


Source: worm creative

   Smart homes are differentiated according to the macro quantity of products, which are roughly divided into single products and systems. The competition between single products and systems has been around for a long time. The representative companies of single products, such as Google Nest, are famous for their smart home systems, such as the domestic material association. They all have their own unique development ideas. Which development method is more reliable for single products and systems? We may wish to analyze it in detail.

  1, single product development

   from the perspective of consumer demand and acceptance, single product seems to More favored by the market. No matter the smart sockets and smart lights that are launched on the market, they are widely favored by consumers. There are two reasons. First, the smart home market has not yet been rolled out. People have not enough understanding of the concept of smart home, and there is no personal experience in smart home products. Therefore, a single-smart smart home is more likely to impress consumers, consumers to buy a home with a taste of early adopters to feel the first. Second, because of the low R&D cost of single-product smart home, the market price is lower than that of the systematic smart home, which is more affordable and easy for consumers to accept.

   From the perspective of manufacturers, many manufacturers have entered the smart home field through transformation and upgrading, or start-up companies, and there are many shortcomings in capital, technology, channel sales, market experience accumulation, etc. Therefore, starting from the single product, not only can save research and development and input costs, but also enable unprofessional consumers to easily and effectively contact and experience smart homes, and quickly understand the functions, applications, and interests of smart homes.

   However, the shortcomings of the single product are that the function is single, the scalability is poor, and other products are incompatible, which is not conducive to the user’s upgrade to the smart home. Since the current industry standards have not been unified, if users purchase different products of different brands and different technologies, different APPs and other mobile terminal control methods are required because the products are incompatible, and as the user demands increase, more and more products are in operation. It will also become more and more complicated. At the same time, the single product can achieve less functions, can not meet the needs of home security, environmental regulation, lighting management, electrical control, etc., not strictly in the sense of the smart home we want.

  Second, systematic development

   manufacturers who follow the path of systematic development, focusing on smart home systems and ecological chains The creation, according to the actual needs of users, to create a comprehensive and integrated smart home system. The systematic smart home can cover more user needs, but also brings the improvement of home quality and the fashion and fast life experience. At present, there are many electrical equipments in the home, and the requirements for improving the quality of life such as home security requirements and environmental adjustment have also increased. Smart home one-button linkage equipment and environmental adjustment, security alarms and other practical functions can bring users a system. A complete and intelligent life experience, which is unmatched by a single smart home.

   Moreover, to be a systematic manufacturer, generally have a full understanding and understanding of the industry, have their own technology, research and development, product lines and solutions, the company’s comprehensive strength and industry experience is sufficient . The systematic development of smart home is the trend of future development, including the current smart home of single product, and it is only a stage in the development of the Internet of Things. In the end, it is necessary to return to the system line and provide comprehensive solutions.

   The current systemic smart home is not popular enough, first of all, the consumer concept has not yet been reached, followed by the systematic price of smart home is not enough for the people, ordinary users are not easy to accept. In terms of technology, solutions, product lines, etc., professional companies like IoT are already mature, and how to popularize it is ultimately the market.

   In fact, smart home is a complete system. The simple smart home items can’t reach the safe, energy-saving, fashionable and fast smart home life that users pursue. In order to create a high standard, high quality, high quality home intelligence, the single product will eventually move closer to the system. Therefore, from this point of view, the single product may open the door of smart home, but systematization is already building a grand blueprint for smart home. The single product is more like an industry transition, and will eventually return to systematization.


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How to deal with the tiles at the floor drain? okorder

How to paste the tiles around the bathroom floor drain?

How to paste the tiles around the bathroom floor drain? Bathroom renovation wants to be done, there are too many details to pay attention to. In addition to the basic problems of waterproofing, ventilation, etc., tile paving also has a large doorway. Everyone knows that a certain slope must be reserved when affixing the floor tiles. Slope over the assembly affects the installation of sanitary wares such as toilets. The slope is too small to function, and the experienced bricklayer masters must grasp the just-increasing slope. In addition to the slope, how to deal with the tiles at the floor drain is also very important, ensuring the beauty while ensuring the smooth flow of water.


Cross-paste method

Set the floor drain to the cross formed by four adjacent tiles At the center of the line, the four corners are aligned with the edge of the tile and extend in the direction of the perimeter. This method is very suitable for square floor drains, relatively beautiful, and the slope is natural.


Dislocation paving method

The floor tiles are laid out in a wrong position, leaving a place for the floor drain to make the floor tile intact and beautiful.


Diagonal cutting method

Select a location suitable for setting the floor drain, place the floor drain in the middle of a tile, and extend it Diagonal cutting, forming a groove with a certain inclination when paving, the floor drain is embedded in the center, so that it is convenient to launch the water, and the position can be better controlled.


Four-edge cutting method

The seemingly complex solution is the most common and most suitable solution. Centering on the floor drain, make a box 6-10 cm above the floor drain, make a diagonal line from this place, and make a slope when tiling.


Edge breaks

If the floor drain is on the edge of the wall, you can use a straight strip of tile at the edge, directly in the middle Leave the location for the floor drain.

The floor drain is a small fitting that is not easy to be valued. Many owners will buy a floor drain after the tile is laid. In fact, this is the wrong procedure.

The shape of the floor drain panel is very different. If you do not buy the floor drain in advance to determine this information, the worker does not know how many holes to reserve in the drain hole when laying the tile. If the reserved hole does not match the size of the floor drain bought later, it will be a very troublesome problem. Therefore, the floor drain and the tiling are basically carried out at the same time.

(Source: Zhuke HOME Public Number)


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The water tank toilet is good, what are the advantages and disadvantages, and it is summarized. okorder

   Nowadays, people are getting higher and higher requirements for living standards. Many people want to install a waterless toilet, but they don’t know whether the water tank is good or not, so let’s summarize it together.

  1, the advantages of the tankless toilet

&emsp ;  First of all, the tankless toilet is more intelligent and convenient. Under normal circumstances, the installation of the tankless toilet can be directly controlled and used, and the use of more advanced technology, as long as the water pressure is within the specified range, under normal circumstances, it can be washed normally, while the water tank toilet flushing effect is also very It’s good, and judging from the noise, basically it can be said that there is no noise. Secondly, the waterless toilet can be used normally without using electricity. Because the tankless toilet is equipped with a dry battery, it can provide sufficient power to the tankless toilet, so it is safe to use. Finally, the tankless toilet is also very convenient to rinse. Flushing is more thorough than the siphonic toilet in normal life. Therefore, it is not easy to produce dirt and bacteria during use, which affects human health.

 2, the disadvantages of the tankless toilet

   the tankless toilet is a new type of water-saving type used in the city. The toilet, so the waterless toilet can directly use the city tap water, so the normal flushing cannot be achieved under the condition of insufficient water pressure, and the tap water pressure used in the waterless toilet must be greater than 0.05pa, otherwise the water tank cannot Normal work, so in general only in the city can achieve this condition. Moreover, because this is a new type of toilet, it is generally more expensive in terms of price.


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What does “black technology” for custom homes mean? okorder

A few days ago, a number of customized home-listed companies have disclosed the 2018 annual report, and the general slowdown in revenue growth has become an indisputable fact. Under the influence of the full-renovation policy “encirclement and suppression” and the increase of new entrants, the custom home furnishing industry will enter the reshuffle stage in 2019. The industry’s transitional and cross-border players have sprung up and capital forces are flowing undercurrent. In the current situation, black technology blessing, personalized service, and continuous promotion of the whole package business have become the breaking point of customized home enterprises.

Breakpoint 1: Black Technology Plus

In the smart stores of many custom home companies, “Black Technology” It is a “standard” for eye-catching.

On April 15th, 2018, the custom furniture brand Sophia teamed up with Tmall to upgrade the “Smart Shop” in Beijing’s North Fourth Ring. It is reported that the new store will apply the four “black technologies” – face recognition, 3D scene roaming, AR projection and cloud shelf to the store for the first time.

According to the relevant personnel of the store, consumers can complete the facial information collection through the system instructions of the shopping guide screen, and generate their own shopping account. At the same time, they can directly bind the Taobao or Tmall account, and then You can place your own orders in the store. The 3D scene roaming is to restore the 3D real environment of the consumer’s environment through the cloud screen in the inter-model area and the IPAD screen on the shopping guide.

For different styles, consumers only need a finger stroke, Nordic style, new Chinese style, small American style, classical style, Mediterranean, simple style… all kinds of style home scenes can be switched at will. In addition, cloud shelves offer a wide selection of products at any time. In order to ensure that consumers can experience the home in a “one-stop shop”, in addition to the numerous products displayed in the store, there are thousands of items in the “cloud shelf” in the cloud screen for consumers to choose from. For products with the AR logo, the consumer only needs to scan the QR code to project the product around 1:1 to see the overall home improvement effect. Convenient and fast!

In the industry, Beijing Sophia Wisdom Store uses smart devices, digital devices and other devices to drive data and use the value of the scene to convey the drive and use intelligence. Human-computer interaction to experience the drive, want to achieve the traditional retail and “people (customers), goods (products), field (store)” reconstruction of the three core elements. This design also greatly increases the order rate and transaction rate.

In addition to Sofia, the custom home furnishing house is equipped with the second-generation full-house customization released in March this year. In the “black technology”, it has been upgraded from simple information to consumer Internet and industrial Internet. Seamless connection.

Li Jiacong, general manager of Shangpin Home Delivery, said that in terms of consumer Internet, Shangpin Home Furnishing Smart Store accurately captures and analyzes user images through Face ID, making retail “targeted”; at the industrial Internet level, Shangpin Home delivery through the data to open the consumer, server, production side, to achieve full-process service online, visualization. On the consumer side, the data of the smart store is connected to the consumer Internet; on the server side, the black technology data is quickly analyzed, and on the production side, the intelligent manufacturing data Unicom Industrial Internet.

Shangpin home with the second generation of the whole house custom added AI intelligent cloud design function, can achieve 10 seconds of speed rendering, with 40,000 + mass plan, improve efficiency by 30%, and promote transactions. In addition, the first “electronic receipt” is the first to visualize the entire process of the service including order placement, manufacturing, warehousing, distribution and installation progress, and consumers can track the product online in real time.

Breakpoint 2: Personalized Service

In terms of sales channel development in 2018, brands are paying more and more attention to consumers’ shopping experience, such as Shopping malls that are becoming more and more common in shopping malls, experience of MALL opening, and the opening of Shangpin home furnishing super store… From the store to the shopping mall, to the home store to a comprehensive shopping mall, and then to the store to introduce diversification The format also enhances the shopping experience while increasing offline traffic.

After surveys on the purchase channels of household products that are favored by middle- and high-end people in China, 44% of middle-income groups choose home hypermarkets, 33% choose brand stores, and only 17% choose brand e-commerce flagship stores. Industry insiders say who can provide a personalized service that allows consumers to make purchasing decisions, and who can win in the final battle.

Sofia has made a lot of deployments at the strategic level in improving the consumer shopping experience. On the one hand, DIYHome and VR are launched to improve the customer’s store experience. Consumers can see the overall decoration effect of the home decoration style, furniture layout and accessories in a short period of time according to their own needs. I feel the immersive feeling after the decoration is directly felt.

On the other hand, in order to make it easier for consumers to experience and purchase, Sofia began to open a large number of supermarket stores, complex stores, and even in-depth community stores last year. To a large extent, it has solved the problem that consumers have not been willing to spend time on the professional building materials market.

For example, Sofia opened the store in Wanda and other supermarkets. Consumers only need to spend an hour or two to communicate with the store. The rest of the time can accompany the family and continue to consume entertainment in the mall. Worried about wasting a day. From the perspective of consumer experience, help consumers save their time and make consumers more convenient.

At the same time, in order to bring consumers a new shopping experience, Sophia and Ali have gone deeper from the previous strategic cooperation to the new retail global operation strategic cooperation, and cooperated online and offline to create global marketing and global sales. Serve consumers together, focusing on smart tools, data banking, customer portraits, and entertainment to create new consumer experiences and enhance brand services.

Breakpoint 3: Continue to advance the strategy of installation>

The emergence of self-contained air outlets provides a new traffic portal for custom businesses. Custom home head companies are accelerating the layout on the finished channel.

Taking the first home in the custom home industry to break the tens of billions of companies. It is reported that Europe has launched a large-scale home, and joined hands with a number of leading home improvement companies. In the third quarter of the 18th year, 22 large-scale home furnishing stores have been opened.

After consulting the European 2018 Annual Report, it can be found that Europa has a clear strategy in the whole package business, with headquarters and national and regional assembly companies, such as living,靓 Home cooperation. On the basis of the risk controllable as the first principle, the resellers require 70%-80% of the dealers in the prefecture-level cities to expand the installation channels, and use local resources to cooperate with local home improvement and decoration companies to realize the installation service providers. Role change. Europa said that the packaging business is expected to become one of the main engines of the Group’s performance growth in the next 3-5 years.

Of course, the results of the European pilots are also quite good. Take the cabinet business line as an example. In about 60% of the malls carrying out the installation channels, the whole order has accounted for more than 10% of the national retail orders; Over 200 stores with over 20% of orders.

In addition to the European faction, Sofia also has a lot of experience in the layout of the business. China Net Home Channel has learned that Sofia has 98 large home fusion stores, and the whole package business has been promoted in 17 cities. Considering that there is a risk of cash repayments in the packaging channel, Sofia does not mandate dealers to promote the installation channel, but encourages local distributors and OEMs to cooperate. There are two types of cooperation between Sofia and the whole company: the first company directly supplies the whole company; the second decoration company, the headquarters, and the dealer cooperate, and the dealer is responsible for supplying and providing services to the whole company.

Industry sources said that custom companies have tried water and equipment, one is forced by traffic trends, and the other is to build a stronger and stronger moat to create a new competitive advantage.


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Bijia floor hand in hand to share the platform, touch the “electric” alliance, mutual benefit and win-win! okorder

On April 15, 2019, the global geothermal floor leading brand “Bijia Floor” and the senior building materials home e-commerce platform “Sanyou Shared Marketing” reached a strategic cooperation agreement. At present, e-commerce has become the mainstream channel for consumer shopping. In addition to the high-end atmosphere of the home shopping environment, consumers in the future must also experience convenient and fast online shopping. The cooperation between Jiajia Floor and Sanyou Shared Marketing Platform is undoubtedly the perfect one.

In 1992, Guangzhou Liheng Group was formally established in Panyu, Guangzhou, which opened the way for Bijia Floor to build a global leading brand of geothermal flooring. Bijia is dedicated to the manufacture and development of geothermal special flooring. And has a number of core technologies such as BTJ, BKF, pre-compression stress, complete industry chain and continuous innovation of products, technology, ideas and communication, making Bijia occupy the leading position in production and sales in the Chinese flooring industry.

The company has an annual production and sales volume of more than 10 million square meters. The sales outlets of more than 300 specialty stores are spread all over the country. The products are exported to Japan, South Korea, Europe and the United States. The company has passed the “ISO9001:2008 international quality system” certification; “China environmental labeling products” certification; “FSC forest chain of custody management system” certification; “US CARB certification”, and won “China’s top ten brands”, “China The top ten brands of solid wood composite flooring and the most influential brand in China’s building materials industry have won the support and recognition of the industry and consumers.

Introduction: The space of the long strips of floor splicing reflects a sense of modern nostalgia, soaking and elegant, with no charm. Modern Chinese design with traditional elements, the complex decoration is simplified, the smooth lines are used to win, the color and layout are emphasized, and the home decoration style is self-contained.
(Fashion Jia-Simple)
Introduction: The floor is decorated with natural colors of wood, which brings the elegance and exquisiteness of the space. It is very modern and simple, showing a quiet environment. It can be used in the living room or in the light meal area, which is very tasteful and makes people in this space feel comfortable and natural.

Sanyou Shared Marketing Platform will use the existing resources Northeast Building Materials Network and its 31 provincial capital cities to carry out in-depth expansion of online channels, solve the pain points of every link in the marketing chain, activate Bijia floor The internal driving force gathers the business elites in various fields of the home building materials industry and adopts a novel commission exchange mechanism to create an industry exchange platform for online and offline integration, resource sharing, and cooperation and win-win. The Bijia floor purchased on the Sanyou platform is all offline for the store, which greatly enhances the trust of the consumers while ensuring the quality of the products.
(provided by Shenyang Building Materials Network) <

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What is the difficulty in refurbishing granite? okorder

Granite, commonly known as granite, is mainly composed of minerals such as quartz, mica and feldspar. The Mohs hardness is about 6.5. Although it is hard in texture, it is prone to weathering and wear after long-term use, especially when it is often in contact with water. At this time, a small amount of concave pitting appears on the surface of the stone, and there is a feeling of unevenness when touched by hand. As the number of granites increases, the surface brightness of the granite decreases, losing its original luster. At this time, it is necessary to restore the luster of the stone by refurbishment.
   However, there are often many problems after the renovation of granite. The most common problem is that it will not be lit up after renovation. The first reaction of many people is that the polishing agent can’t be done. If you change the medicine, you can get out of it, but if you change the medicine, you still can’t emit light. What is going on? In fact, the refurbishment of granite has corresponding requirements for various aspects such as construction process, machinery and equipment, materials, etc. No matter which aspect is not operated according to the specifications, it is difficult to illuminate after renovation.

   Why is the polishing not polished after the renovation of the granite? First, analyze from the construction process:

   1. We should consider whether the granite has been used in the whole construction process, especially if it is coated with water before polishing. .

   If the protective agent is not applied, the water will enter the interior of the stone during grinding, which will not only cause polishing problems, but also cause other problems such as water spots and rust yellow. In addition, the solvent-based protective agent should be applied before the polishing process, and if it is not applied, the polishing effect will be affected.

   Second, it is necessary to analyze whether there is a jump in the process of granite renovation. There are two cases of the jumper mentioned here, one is that the number of the grinding plate is not increased step by step. For example, if 150# directly grinds 500#, the middle 300# is omitted, which will not only affect the effect of post-polishing, but if the dark granite omits 300#, it will also cause the color to be unrecoverable.

   In the second case, the jumper refers to the use of refurbished hard pieces in the early cutting, and the fine grinding of the pieces in the back, so that the scratches left by the previous cuts cannot be eliminated. It will cause the polishing to not shine later.

   3. No water absorption in time. This problem is often overlooked. If it is not possible to absorb water every time it is finished, the scratches will not be completely eliminated after the grinding, which will directly affect the later polishing.

   Secondly, from the analysis of polishing materials:

   1, “Workers must first sharpen their tools”, granite renovation Choose a special grinding machine for stone, and do not use non-professional equipment such as scrubbers.

   2. When the granite was refurbished, there was no special refurbished piece.

   3. The refurbished granite is polished on the basis of polishing.

   It can be seen from the above analysis that the factors that can not be polished after the renovation of granite are not only materials, we can from “people, machines, materials, rings, laws, books”, etc. Several aspects to analyze one by one.

   Among them, the most critical factor is actually people. Granite refurbishment has high technical requirements for construction workers. The machine needs people to operate. The materials need people to choose. The process needs people to formulate, implement and supervise.

   Therefore, if you need to deal with granite renovation projects, you must first train the construction personnel to master the standard process of granite renovation.
(provided by Shenyang Building Materials Network) <

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How does the vibrating screen work? okorder

The vibrating screen works by reciprocating rotary vibration generated by vibrator excitation. The upper rotating weight of the vibrator causes a plane to oscillate the surface of the screen, while the lower rotating weight causes the screen surface to produce a cone-shaped rotating vibration. The combined effect of the vibrating effect causes a complex-rotating vibration of the screen surface. Its vibration trajectory is a complex space curve. The curve is projected as a circle on the horizontal plane and an ellipse on the vertical plane. Adjust the excitation force of the upper and lower rotary weights to change the amplitude. Adjusting the spatial phase angle of the upper and lower weights can change the curve shape of the screen movement trajectory and change the movement trajectory of the material on the screen surface.
The vibrating screen is mainly divided into a linear vibrating screen, a circular vibrating screen, and a high frequency vibrating screen. The vibrating screen can be divided into a single-axis vibrating screen and a two-axis vibrating screen according to the type of the vibrator. The single-axis vibrating screen uses a single unbalanced heavy excitation to vibrate the screen box, the screen surface is inclined, and the movement path of the screen box is generally circular or elliptical. The two-axis vibrating screen is a double unbalanced heavy excitation using synchronous counter-rotating, the screen surface is horizontally inclined or inclined, and the movement path of the screen box is a straight line. The vibrating screen has an inertial vibrating screen, an eccentric vibrating screen, a self-centering vibrating screen, and an electromagnetic vibrating screen.

The vibrating screen uses the vibrating motor as the vibration source, so that the material is thrown up on the screen and moves forward in a straight line. The material enters the feeding port of the screening machine evenly from the feeder. The multi-layer screen produces several sizes of oversize and undersize, which are discharged from their respective outlets. Linear vibrating screen (straight screen) has the advantages of stable and reliable, low consumption, low noise, long life, stable vibration shape and high screening efficiency. It is a new and efficient screening equipment widely used in mining, coal, smelting and building materials. , refractory materials, light industry, chemical industry and other industries.

The vibrating screen is operated by the compounding type oscillation caused by the vibration of the vibrator. The upper rotating weight of the vibrator causes the plane of the screen to oscillate, while the lower rotating weight causes the surface of the screen to reversely oscillate. The combined action causes the screen surface to oscillate repeatedly. In normal operation, how to prevent the damage of the vibrating screen bearing, let’s discuss together:
When the eccentric block of the device falls after a long time of use, or the eccentric block does not have the same size, the linear oscillating sieve exciter Symmetrical eccentric block layouts work at high speeds. Will cause the equipment to rotate abnormally. At this moment, it is necessary to replace the eccentric block layout in time, and the two tendency blocks of the linear oscillating screen are combined to work balanced. The bearings of the linear oscillating screen are prone to conflict and temperature rise after the abnormal speed. When the bearing of the linear oscillating screen is short and the smooth oil agent or smooth oil agent increases, it does not meet the equipment requirements. When the vibration screen maze sealing equipment is blocked, the bearing layout temperature rises across the regular scale value. At this moment, it is necessary to check the smooth system of the equipment in time. The smooth oil agent is hygienic enough. If the obstruction is found, the bearing should be installed for thorough sanitation; if the seal ring is damaged or the bearing is cracked after wear, the seal ring and the bearing should be replaced in time, and the linear vibrating screen should be adjusted from the head. After heavy.
(provided by Shenyang Building Materials Network) <

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